Machines have evolved significantly over the years. And, in a bid to improve efficiency in operations, many of these machines have to work considerably and for long hours. This invariably leads to several issues, with vibrations being one of the most prominent.
Nevertheless, the incorporation of vibration-dampening pads has also helped to reduce this challenge considerably. This article will focus on understanding the impact of vibration padding and how it helps machines by preserving their shelf life.
The Impact Of Vibration On Machine Operations
We pretty much all know what vibrations are – movements in different components of a machine that occur as it operates.
Consider a car that’s moving. When it does, there are several components that come together to essentially make this happen. As such, the interactions of these components can easily cause vibrations that linger over time.
Now, while it might be easy to criticize vibrations, it is worth noting that their effects aren’t always bad. In fact, vibrations can be useful and generated intentionally. Harnessed properly, they can help to perform specific tasks such as ultrasonic clearing.
The issue, of course, is that vibrations are mostly net negatives rather than positives. Some of these include:
- Excessive Wear and Tear: Easily the most significant effect of vibrations is wear and tear. This is especially prominent when the vibrations are excessive and if vibration damping isn’t incorporated. Maintenance costs will rack up, and you might need to replace your entire machine soon enough.
- Misalignment: Excessive vibrations can also cause a misalignment of machine parts – leading to challenges such as overheating, friction, and more.
- Fatigue Failure: Cyclic vibrations are especially noted for their ability to cause fatigue failure in machine components. This will lead to cracks and fractures, eventually causing the entire machine to fail.
- Reduced Accuracy: In machines that require heavy precision to work, vibrations can be especially detrimental. For instance, silicone engraving machines, which need to be accurate at all times, can easily suffer dimensional inaccuracies when vibration is uncontrolled.
- Balancing Issues: Machines with rotating components will also have issues with maintaining balance if vibrations are rampant.
- Noise and Vibration Transmission: Vibrations easily create noise in machine components. And, this noise itself can be transmitted to the surrounding environment, leading to noise pollution and discomfort.
All of these have made it imperative to get vibration damping. Essentially, this vibration padding form can help to keep vibrations at a minimal level – if they can’t be eradicated entirely. And, as you can imagine, damping will definitely have a massive positive effect on the life of your machine.
Understanding Vibration Damping Pads
Vibration damping pads are materials or devices that are designed for a specific goal – to cut down on vibrations or transmissions in machinery.
Also known as an anti-vibration pad, a vibration-damping pad will essentially reduce or eliminate vibrations in machines by cutting transmissions from a vibrating source to the surrounding environment. The pads operate by absorbing vibrations, while also focusing on isolating them and preventing them from causing any further disturbances.
How Vibration Damping Pads Work
The Primary Principles of Vibration Damping
Generally, the working principles of vibration-damping pads are as follows:
Absorption of Vibrations:
First off, a vibration-damping pad is made with a viscoelastic material. When placed between the vibrating source and the surrounding structure, it essentially absorbs the mechanical energy generated by these vibrations.
Some of the materials can also deform and dissipate the vibrational energy as heat, ensuring that it isn’t transferred anymore.
Dispersal of Vibrations:
In some cases, you can also see a vibration pad dispersing vibrations across a broader surface area. This will reduce the intensity of the vibrations transmitted from the source to the surrounding structure.
This vibration-absorbing foam will then help to prevent localized wear or damage as a result of this dispersion effect.
Some vibration-dampening pads can also use the principle of isolation to physically separate the vibration source from the rest of the machine’s structure. Essentially, vibration isolation pads do this with the use of spring mounts or elastomeric elements that isolate the source from having any direct contact with the rest of the structure.
The use of heavy mass layers by machine dampening pads will help to improve efficiency to a considerable degree. These mass-loaded layers will soak up and dampen vibrations by increasing their resistance to the vibrating system and inertia, thus making it more challenging for the vibrations themselves to move from source to structure.
Compression and Flexibility:
Every vibration-absorbing foam needs to be able to flex and compress under massive loads. When the pad is compressed by the weight of the vibrating source, it deforms and is able to soak up the vibrations.
With this flexibility, the vibration-damping pad is able to maintain contact with the source and the structure, thus ensuring effective control of the vibrations.
At the end of the day, there are several factors that will also inform your choice of a vibration-damping pad – which we’ll look into later. However, you want to also make sure that you have the right pad for your machine going forward.
Materials Used To Make Damping Pads
For vibration-damping pads to work, they need to be made with viscoelastic materials that can properly take in vibrations and dissipate them. That said, here are some of the common materials used to create them:
It should come as no surprise that rubber is at the forefront of materials used to create vibration-damping pads. The material absorbs vibration excellently, and you also have the choice of using either natural or synthetic rubber.
A synthetic rubber, neoprene is known for its resistance to environmental factors like chemicals and oil. So, if you have a situation where your machine needs to resist vibrations and harsh conditions, then neoprene just might be what you need.
Cork is a natural material that dampens vibrations and soaks in sounds as well. Cork pads are used mostly for flooring applications, reducing vibrations and noise considerably.
Neoprene foam and other closed-cell foam materials are quite popular for vibration dampening too. A vibration-absorbing foam works in different applications, using its lightweight build as an advantage to seamlessly fit into custom shapes and spaces.
Viscoelastic Polymer Compounds:
The use of viscoelastic polymer compounds has become prominent in the development of vibration-damping pads recently as well. Many of these materials offer enhanced damping properties, making them perfect for precision machinery and equipment.
Gel-filled pads are built to absorb vibrations as their gel material deforms. They work in applications when you need a softer material to counter the vibrations
Sorbothane is a proprietary viscoelastic material that is also popular for its ability to absorb shock. It works in high-precision applications, especially when you need minimal vibrations.
Silicone, polyurethane, and several other elastomeric materials can also be used in making vibration isolation pads. Plus, with these vibration damping materials being available in the foam form, then you could also make a shock-absorbing foam out of them.
Per usual, understanding the many differences between silicone and polyurethane vibration damping – as well as other elastomers – will be critical as you go forward.
When choosing your damping pad material, you need to focus on the specific application and the nuances of the machinery. Other factors to be considered include the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations, environmental conditions, load-bearing requirements, and others.
Common Pad Shapes and Sizes
With vibration-damping pads, it is also important to understand the different shape and size variations available. Each of them is designed to suit specific applications and accommodate different machinery, and they include:
Square and Rectangular Pads
In most cases, the square and rectangular dampening pad is the most common one you see. These ones are incredibly versatile, and they can support a broad range of equipment – from large machines to small appliances.
Circular vibration damping pads work with tools with circular bases and support structures – compressors, HVAC systems, etc.
Used mostly in heavy-duty applications, cylindrical vibration damping pads are perfect when you need efficiency in vibration control. You can find them in different heights and diameters, each accommodating different vibration frequencies and weight capacities.
Conical or Tapered Pads
With their tapered or conical shapes, these pads work when you need to make elevation changes. Their unique shapes allow them to offer both vibration damping and leveling for equipment and unstable surfaces.
Some situations require bespoke solutions. As such, manufacturers like Legenday can also help you to create your custom shock-absorbing foam. This way, you have a product that can fit your specific structure or equipment.
Strips and Sheets
As you’d expect, you can get a vibration damper in the form of a sheet or a strip that can easily fit a desired shape or size. These vibration-damping materials are versatile, and they can be used to line work surfaces, equipment bases, and other areas where you need optimal vibration control.
Dimpled or Ribbed Pads
Some vibration-damping pads come with surface patterns with ribs or dimples. These patterns provide a grip and can cut down on the risk of equipment slipping. As such, when you have a high-slip application, these pads could do some good as well.
Types of Vibration Damping Pads
Vibration damping pads usually come in different types, mostly differing based on the materials that they have been made with. To that end, here are a few of the popular options available:
Traditional Daming Pads
Of course, you have regular vibration pads that were built using traditional materials – rubber, cork, neoprene, etc. These ones work across multiple industries, as we’ll examine later.
Elastomeric Vibration Damping Pads
Different elastomeric materials can also be used to manufacture vibration-damping pads. With proper formulation, the materials can be used to provide the needed damping characteristics and stiffness.
Spring-Mounted Isolation Pads:
A spring-mounted isolation pad comes with a combination of springs and elastomeric materials. They work more in heavy-duty applications, helping to isolate tools from shocks and vibrations.
Major Applications of Vibration Damping Pads
Considering that machines are pretty much a constant across different industries, vibration-damping pads have become a massive requirement as well. Generally, you can find these pads operating across multiple fields:
You can use vibration-damping pads under heavy industrial machinery – stamping presses, manufacturing equipment, etc. The main point here is for them to reduce vibration transmission and prevent any form of structural damage.
HVAC systems are known to generate a considerable amount of vibration as they work. So, you need a vibration-damping pad to minimize this noise and cut down on the vibrations.
Pumps and Motors
Generators, motors, pumps, and more are also known to generate vibrations. By placing vibration-dampening pads under them, you can prevent structural damage and ensure that the machines still work efficiently across the board.
Vibration damping pads are useful in power generation facilities where they cut down on vibrations in turbines, generators, and other equipment. Their work goes a long way in optimizing stability and ensuring that the machines maintain their work rate.
Construction and Building Applications
With the heavy machinery used in construction, vibration-dampening pads help to ensure that everything works seamlessly. They can protect nearby structures, prevent damages to buildings, and make for a more comfortable working environment overall.
Manufacturing and Assembly Lines
A vibration pad can be used in manufacturing equipment and assembly lines to improve overall product quality and cut down on service downtimes. These pads help to ensure that tools function better, especially with the right levels of stability.
To protect the functionality of sensitive lab equipment – precision balances, electron microscopes, etc. – vibration dampeners help to ensure that stress is limited and these machines can provide accurate readings.
Aerospace and Automotive Manufacturing
In the automotive and aerospace industries, manufacturers make use of vibration-dampening pads across the manufacturing process to ensure that there are minimal vibrations in assembly and machining operations.
Residential and Commercial Buildings
Even after they’ve been constructed, buildings will still need some vibration dampening. From minimizing the effects of appliances to removing noise across multiple sources, there’s always a need for a vibration-damping pad.
Marine and Offshore
For ships, oil rigs, and other offshore vehicles, vibration-dampening pads help to mitigate the effects of vibrations and protect all critical equipment from exposure to harsh environments.
Transportation: Vibration damping pads are used in various modes of transportation to simply ensure that passengers are comfortable as they move from point to point.
How To Choose The Right Vibration Damping Pad
Critical Selection Factors to Consider
Selecting the right vibration-damping pads will be important if you hope to efficiently mitigate vibrations and protect your tools and structures. However, when making this choice, it is important to consider some of the following factors:
First, look into the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations that the machine generates. Different vibration-damping pads can work for different frequency ranges, so it is important to choose one that matches your tool’s vibration profile.
The weight of the equipment should also play a role in determining your choice. Basically, you want to make sure that the pads can handle this load without compressing too much and losing their dampening capabilities.
If the pads will be exposed to harsh environmental conditions, then you want to make sure that they can hold their own. Look into the possibility of chemicals, humidity, ultraviolet exposure, and more, and see to it that the pads can resist these factors considerably.
Durability and long-lasting capabilities should also play a role in choosing a shock-absorbing foam. Always ensure that the pads are made of high-quality materials and that they can prolong their service life as much as possible.
Material Type & Characteristics
As we pointed out earlier, your pad material should be compatible with the equipment. For one, the material should be able to handle the intricate needs of the application. Just as well, the right size and shape of the pad will be needed to match the equipment’s base.
Compression and Recovery Characteristics
Consider how well the damping pad will be able to compress under load and recover to its original shape. This impacts the effectiveness of the pad in absorbing vibrations and providing support.
Every damping pad will face some form of deformation or the other. You want to make sure that it is resilient enough to quickly return to its original shape after this.
You can also consider the methods for installing the pads. Some pads are self-adhesive, while others might need more fasteners to keep them attached to the surface of the tool. Whatever pad you choose, the installation method needs to be compatible with the mounting surface and equipment.
Vibration Isolation Needs
Look into whether the application will need any more vibration isolation to reduce vibrations. In some cases, you might need to combine a vibration damper with a rubber isolation mat.
For custom applications, you might need to get a custom-designed damping solution. If you find that a rubber isolation mat might not be right for you, speak to your manufacturer to see if they can build something that will work for your tool.
Look into the different options available to you, as well as their costs and vibration characteristics, to ensure that they will provide value for the money you’re paying.
Installation and Maintenance Tips
As it usually is with everything else that concerns machinery, you want to make sure that your vibration-damping pads operate optimally at all times. And, that means installing them right and maintaining them to the best of your ability.
To that end, here are a few things you would want to keep in mind:
- Clean and Level Surface: Before you go ahead to install the pads, ensure that the mounting surface is clean and properly level. Irregularities in the surface will significantly affect the efficiency of the pads.
- Check Load-Bearing Capacity: Also, check to see that your damping pad can support the weight of the equipment before it is installed.
- Proper Pad Placement: Ensure that the pad is installed under the equipment’s base or feet. And, see to it that the entire contact area is properly supported by the pads.
- Fastening or Adhesives: Depending on the type of equipment and damping pad, you might need to use some extra fasteners or adhesives to secure them in place.
- Weight Distribution: As part of the installation process, see to it that the equipment’s weight is evenly distributed on the pads to prevent any uneven wear.
- Alignment: Ensure proper equipment alignment on the pads to ensure that it sits balanced and does not create any extra vibrations.
- Cleaning: Ensure that the damping pads are clean at all times. Remove any dirt, debris, and dust, and clean the pads with a mild detergent.
- Visual Inspection: Once the pad has been installed, inspect it visually to check for signs of damage and wear. If you notice that damping properties have been lost, then you might need to replace the pads.
- Check for Misalignment: As part of the installation process, you also need to ensure that the equipment is properly aligned on the pads.
- Monitor Load-Bearing Capacity: Already, this check should be done before installation. However, if you find changes in the load or weight of the tool, then verify that the pads you have can support it all the same. If the need arises, the pads could be changed.
- Replace as Needed: Remember that damping pads have a service life. And, over time, they could eventually lose their efficiency. If this happens, a replacement will be required.
- Environmental Considerations: Even with materials that can withstand harsh conditions, there is a chance that exposure to these conditions might cause them to degrade. Once you notice a deterioration, then you might need to replace the pads.
- Consult the Manufacturer: When you buy a vibration-damping pad, it’s important that you follow the manufacturer’s recommended maintenance guidelines. Maintenance steps for different pad types can vary, and you need to make sure that you follow the right care instructions.
- Professional Inspection: Some cases might require having a professional inspection of the equipment and damping system.
Much has been said about machinery efficiency. However, every machine will need vibration-damping pads to ensure that they maintain their reliability and efficiency.
At Legenday, we can provide you with the best and most effective vibration dampers available. Reach out to us, and let’s see how we can help you.